The credit for naming the region also goes to him—he used the name ‘Canada’ derived from the Huron-Iroquois word ‘kanata’, meaning a village or settlement—to refer to … Cartier died on September 1, 1557, in Saint-Malo, France. Baron de La Chapelle, « Jean Le Veneur et le Canada Â», Nova Francia, vol. Pourquoi, dans ses relations de voyages, Cartier ne fait-il jamais allusion à Verrazzano ou au littoral visité en 1524 ? Despite Roberval's insistence that he accompany him back to Saguenay, Cartier slipped off under the cover of darkness and continued on to France, still convinced his vessels contained a wealth of gold and diamonds. Cartier sailed on April 20, 1534, with two ships and 61 men, and arrived 20 days later. Né en 1491 à Saint-Malo, il y meurt le 1erseptembre 1557. The goals were now to find the "Kingdom of Saguenay" and its riches, and to establish a permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River.[25]. [50], This article is about the French explorer. Meanwhile, Roberval took command at Charlesbourg-Royal, but it was abandoned in 1543 after disease, foul weather and hostile natives drove the would-be settlers to despair.[26]. Cartier was the first to document the name Canada to designate the territory on the shores of the St-Lawrence River. 341–343, quoting a genealogical work made in 1723 for the Le Veneur family. Quand il compare les indigènes ou les produits du Canada avec ceux du Brésil, pourquoi ne … He revoked the Edict of Nantes and is known for his aggressive foreign policy. Dès lors, François Ier estime avoir les mains libres pour effectuer des voyages de découvertes dans des régions qui ne sont p… Jacques Cartier (31. prosince 1491 Saint-Malo, Francie – 1. září 1557 Saint-Malo) byl francouzský námořník a objevitel, často označovaný za "objevitele Kanady ". Here he kidnapped the two sons of their chief, Donnacona. On a voyage that would add him to the list of famous explorers, Cartier was to search for gold and other riches, spices, and a passage to Asia. En route, he stopped at Newfoundland, where he encountered the colonists, whose leader ordered Cartier back to Quebec. No records exist about the winter of 1541–1542 and the information must be gleaned from the few details provided by returning sailors. Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier is host to one of the most beautiful glacial valleys in Québec, the spectacular Vallée de la Jacques-Cartier. Cartier and his men prepared for the winter by strengthening their fort, stacking firewood, and salting down game and fish. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas" after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island). In his journal, Cartier states that by mid-February, "out of 110 that we were, not ten were well enough to help the others, a pitiful thing to see". Thereafter the name Canada was used to designate the small French colony on these shores, and the French colonists were called Canadiens until the mid-nineteenth century, when the name started to be applied to the loyalist colonies on the Great Lakes and later to all of British North America. Jacques Cartier Fiche D'identité: Prénom/ Nom : Jacques Cartier Date de naissance : 23 Septembre 1491 à Saint-Malo Nationalité : Française Son Premier Voyage : Jacques Cartier fait un premier voyage au Canada avec son bateau appelé l'Hermine. [15] The 10-metre cross bearing the words "Long Live the King of France" claimed possession of the territory in the King's name. Its rediscovery has been hailed by archaeologists as the most important find in Canada since the L'Anse aux Meadows rediscovery.[30]. Cartier set sail in April 1534 with two ships and 61 men, … Jacques Cartier (* 31. december 1491, Saint-Malo, Francúzsko – † 1. september 1557, Saint-Malo) bol francúzsky námorný kapitán a objaviteľ.Významne ho inÅ¡piroval Giovanni da Verrazano, florentský cestovateľ v službách francúzskeho kráľa, ktorý v roku 1524 dosiahol pobrežie Južnej Karolíny a potom cestoval na sever k pobrežiu Nového Å kótska. Eastern parts had previously been visited by the Norse, as well as Basque, Galician and Breton fishermen, and perhaps the Corte-Real brothers and John Cabot (in addition of course to the Natives who first inhabited the territory). Another fort was also built on the cliff overlooking the settlement, for added protection. Jacques Cartier was the first European to describe and map[3] the Gulf of Saint Lawrence and the shores of the Saint Lawrence River, which he named "The Country of Canadas" after the Iroquois names for the two big settlements he saw at Stadacona (Quebec City) and at Hochelaga (Montreal Island). Jacques Cartier (Breton: Jakez Karter; December 31, 1491 September 1, 1557) was a Breton explorer … The convicts and other colonists were landed, the cattle that had survived three months aboard ship were turned loose, earth was broken for a kitchen garden, and seeds of cabbage, turnip, and lettuce were planted. [30] The colony was built at the confluence of the Rivière du Cap Rouge with the St. Lawrence River and is based on the discovery of burnt wooden timber remains that have been dated to the mid-16th century, and a fragment of a decorative Istoriato plate manufactured in Faenza, Italy, between 1540 and 1550, that could only have belonged to a member of the French aristocracy in the colony. His exploration of the St. Lawrence River allowed France to lay claim to lands that would become Canada. Because of his hasty escape, Cartier was only able to report to the king that untold riches lay farther west and that a great river, said to be about 2,000 miles long, possibly led to Asia. Two of the ships were sent on their journey home with some of these minerals on September 2.[25]. It seems the natives attacked and killed about 35 settlers before the Frenchmen could retreat behind their fortifications. [16] Cartier wrote that they later told him this region where they were captured (Gaspé) was called by them Honguedo. Cartier spent the rest of his life in Saint-Malo and his nearby estate, where he often was useful as an interpreter in Portuguese. He explored the west coast of Newfoundland, discovered Prince Edward Island and sailed through the Gulf of St. Lawrence, past Anticosti Island. While some of his actions toward the St. Lawrence Iroquoians were dishonourable, he did try at times to establish friendship with them and other native peoples living along the St. Lawrence River—an indispensable preliminary to French settlement in their lands. Jacques was born in Brittany in 1491 and became a subject of France when Brittany was formally incorporated into France in 1532. In September, Cartier sailed to what would become Montreal and was welcomed by the Iroquois who controlled the area, hearing from them that there were other rivers that led farther west, where gold, silver, copper and spices could be found. It was folded into the fr:Banque provinciale du Canada, and later still the National Bank of Canada. The purpose of the voyage was to find a northwest passageto Asia, as well as to collect riches such as gold and spices along the way. See Marcel Trudel. The Frenchmen used up the bark of an entire tree in a week on the cure, and the dramatic results prompted Cartier to proclaim it a Godsend, and a miracle. Henri Matisse was a revolutionary and influential artist of the early 20th century, best known for the expressive color and form of his Fauvist style. Jacques Cartier est un navigateur, explorateur français et écrivain par ses récits de voyage. [4][5][6][7], Jacques Cartier was born in 1491[8] in Saint-Malo, the port on the north-east coast of Brittany. He is a celebrity explorer. Jacques Cartier fit un premier voyage de 4 mois, avec l'intention de découvrir un passage vers l'Asie et de trouver de l'or et des richesses. Jacques Cartier was born in 1490s. Before they could continue, though, the harsh winter blew in, rapids made the river impassable, and Cartier and his men managed to anger the Iroquois. Who Was Jacques Cartier? Jacques Cartier was born on December 31, 1491 (age 65) in Saint-Malo, France. The Dutch and the French had robust naval presence but they were slow to respond to the rapid explorations being undertaken by their fellow Europeans. Having set tasks for everyone, Cartier left with the longboats for a reconnaissance in search of "Saguenay" on September 7. © 2017-Forever by Mariam Mahboob. Plusieurs objections viennent ébranler cette théorie : si Cartier est absent de Saint-Malo pendant les voyages de Verrazzano, il peut facilement se trouver ailleurs que sur la Dauphine ; en outre, l'expédition part de Normandie et l'on voit mal un Breton, à cette époque, s'associer aux armateurs de Dieppe. The British and the Portuguese were undisputed leaders in the age of discovery. In 1534, King Francis I of France sent Cartier — likely because of his previous expeditions — on a new trip to the eastern coast of North America, then called the "northern lands." During his childhood he heard the stories of Christopher Columbus, and he was inspired by them.So, throughout his life Cartier learned about navigation and eventually became a skilled mariner. French navigator Jacques Cartier was sent by King Francis I to the New World in search of riches and a new route to Asia … Starting on May 10 of that year, he explored parts of Newfoundland, the Strait of Belle Isle and southern shore of the Labrador Peninsula, the Gaspé and North Shore coastlines on the Gulf of St. Lawrence, and some parts of the coasts of the Gulf's main islands, including Prince Edward Island, Anticosti Island and the Magdalen Islands. A group of colonists was a few months behind him this time. Samuel de Champlain was a French explorer and cartographer best known for establishing and governing the settlements of New France and the city of Quebec. The name is derived from the Huron-Iroquois word kanata, or village, which was incorrectly interpreted as the native term for the newly discovered land. In 2005, Cartier's Bref récit et succincte narration de la navigation faite en MDXXXV et MDXXXVI was named one of the 100 most important books in Canadian history by the Literary Review of Canada. Cartier returned to France in September 1534, sure that he had reached an Asian land. Jacques Cartier (UK: /ˈkɑːrtieɪ/ KAR-tee-ay, also US: /ˌkɑːrtiˈeɪ, kɑːrˈtjeɪ/ KAR-tee-AY, kar-TYAY,[1][2] French: [ʒak kaʁtje], Quebec French: [- kaʁtÍ¡sje]; Breton: Jakez Karter; 31 December 1491 – 1 September 1557) was a French-Breton maritime explorer for France. Il se marie avec Catherine des Granges en 1520. Having reached Hochelaga, he was prevented by bad weather and the numerous rapids from continuing up to the Ottawa River. Two Indigenous peoples Cartier had captured previously now served as guides, and he and his men navigated the St. Lawrence, as far as Quebec, and established a base. Cartier's first two encounters with aboriginal peoples in Canada on the north side of Chaleur Bay, most likely the Mi'kmaq, were brief; some trading occurred. En 1518, il aurait eu en sa possession un livre intitulé Les loables Coustumes d… He produced an intelligent estimate of the resources of Canada, both natural and human, albeit with a considerable exaggeration of its mineral wealth. This remedy likely saved the expedition from destruction, allowing 85 Frenchmen to survive the winter. Jacques Cartier est un navigateur, un cartographe, un explorateur et un écrivain (il décrit ses voyages).. Il est né à Saint-Malo le 23 septembre 1491 et mort à 65 ans le 1 er septembre 1557 dans la même ville.. Jacques Cartier est né à Saint-Malo, à Paramé ou à Saint-Servan (les historiens n'ont pas retrouvé son acte de baptême). Proudly created with Néanmoins, nous ne connaissons que peu de choses à propos de sa vie entre sa naissance et son premier grand voyage de 1534. His third encounter took place on the shores of Gaspé Bay with a party of St. Lawrence Iroquoians, where on July 24 he planted a cross to claim the land for France. Jacques Cartier: Jacques Cartier was born during the late-15th century, during the start of the European Age of Discovery. It took him twenty days to sail across the ocean. Celle-ci présente un encaissement de plus de 550 mètres où serpente une rivière tantôt calme, tantôt agitée. However, January 15, 1541, saw Cartier supplanted by Jean-François de La Rocque de Roberval, a Huguenot courtier and friend of the king named as the first lieutenant general of French Canada. After spending two days among the people of Hochelaga, Cartier returned to Stadacona on October 11. The Spanish and Italians too embarked on their own missions. Jacques Cartier, (born 1491, Saint-Malo, Brittany, France—died September 1, 1557, near Saint-Malo), French mariner whose explorations of the Canadian coast and the St. Lawrence River (1534, 1535, 1541–42) laid the basis for later French claims to North America (see New France). He arrived there in October, in what proved to be his last voyage. [18][21][22], Ready to return to France in early May 1536, Cartier decided to kidnap Chief Donnacona and take him to France,[23] so that he might personally tell the tale of a country further north, called the "Kingdom of Saguenay", said to be full of gold, rubies and other treasures. It is not known exactly when he decided to spend the winter of 1535–1536 in Stadacona, and it was by then too late to return to France. Dort entspricht ein Parc national dem, was in den übrigen Provinzen als … Jacques Cousteau was a French undersea explorer, researcher, photographer and documentary host who invented diving and scuba devices, including the Aqua-Lung. Il succombe le 1er Septembre 1557 à l’épidémie de peste qui ravage Saint-Malo. This time, any thought of finding a passage to the Orient was forgotten. Jacques CARTIER, Sieur de Limoëlou: Nationalité: Française: Occupation: Exploration pour la France: Naissance: 1491, à Saint-Malo (France) Décès: 1557, à Saint-Malo (France) [9] His good name in Saint-Malo is recognized by its frequent appearance in baptismal registers as godfather or witness. By the time King Franci… His father was Jamet Cartier, and his mother was Geseline Jansart.2 Almost nothing is known of his early life before his famous explorations. Coverdale collection of Canadiana, "Jacques Cartier, Verrazano and France in the New World", "Photos, Prints, Drawings - Jacques Cartier, his first interview with the Indians at Hochelaga now Montreal in 1535", "Paul-Émile Borduas - Les voyages de Jacques Cartier au Canada en 1534 et 1535", "Paul-Émile Borduas - Plan d'Hochelaga par Jacques Cartier en 1535", "What Howie Meeker and Atwood have in common", "Album Review: A look back at The Tragically Hip's Fully Completely", English translation of Cartier's accounts, Watch a Heritage Minutes feature on Jacques Cartier,, French exploration in the Age of Discovery, Persons of National Historic Significance (Canada), Articles with Encyclopædia Britannica links, Articles with dead external links from January 2018, Articles with permanently dead external links, Wikipedia pages semi-protected against vandalism, Articles with unsourced statements from September 2018, Articles needing additional references from September 2017, All articles needing additional references, Articles containing Laurentian-language text, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CINII identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Беларуская (тарашкевіца)‎, Srpskohrvatski / српскохрватски, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Built: France 1534; given in 1535 to Cartier by the King of France; used in the 1535–1536 and 1541–1542 voyages; replica 1967 built for, Built: France; used in the 1535–1536 voyage and abandoned in 1536 springtime by Cartier in, Built: France; used in the 1535–1536 and 1541–1542 voyages, Built: France; used in the 1541–1542 voyage, Quebec City, in front of Gabrielle-Roy public library, bronze at PEI's Jacques Cartier Provincial Park, This page was last edited on 24 December 2020, at 04:15. © 2020 Biography and the Biography logo are registered trademarks of A&E Television Networks, LLC. He is 528 years old and is a Capricorn. The Jacques Cartier River, calm in some places and turbulent in others, has sliced a 550-metre-deep channel into the plateau. The Iroquoians no longer made friendly visits or peddled fish and game, but prowled about in a sinister manner. That year, the government of King Francis I of France commissioned Cartier to lead an expedition to the “northern lands,” as the east coast of North America was then known. Early Life and First Major Voyage to North America. In this way Cartier is not strictly the European discoverer of Canada as this country is understood today, a vast federation stretching a mari usque ad mare (from sea to sea). Sans trouver de passage vers l'Asie ou de richesses, il rentra en France avec deux Amérindiens à bord. Jacques Cartier ek French trader aur explorer rahaa. Jacques Cartier was born in Saint-Malo, France on Thursday, December 31, 1491 (G.I. Cartier est déjà un marin expérimenté lorsque François Ier fait appel à lui, mais on ignore tout de ses débuts. From mid-November 1535 to mid-April 1536, the French fleet lay frozen solid at the mouth of the St. Charles River, under the Rock of Quebec. Jacques Cartier was born on December 31st, 1491 in Saint-Malo, Brittany. Ice was over a fathom (1.8 m) thick on the river, with snow four feet (1.2 m) deep ashore. The site of their arrival has been confidently identified as the beginning of the Sainte-Marie Sault – where the bridge named after him now stands. Jacques Cartier rentre chez lui à Limoilou, à quelques kilomètres de Saint-Malo, où il se consacre aux affaires. Il participait donc souvent à des baptêmes et des procédures judiciaires. Generation generation). [31] This colony was the first known European settlement in modern-day Canada since the c. 1000 L'Anse aux Meadows Viking village in northern Newfoundland. Cartier is interred in Saint-Malo Cathedral. This generation experienced much of their youth during the Great Depression and rapid technological innovation such as the radio and the telephone. After an arduous trip down the St. Lawrence and a three-week Atlantic crossing, Cartier and his men arrived in Saint-Malo on July 15, 1536, concluding the second, 14-month voyage, which was to be Cartier's most profitable. Né à Saint-Malo en 1491, Jacques Cartier était fils de pêcheur et a probablement fait son apprentissage de mousse et de matelot. On August 18, 2006, Quebec Premier Jean Charest announced that Canadian archaeologists had discovered the precise location of Cartier's lost first colony of Charlesbourg-Royal. 6, 1931, pp. For other uses, see, His maps are lost but referenced in a letter by his nephew Jacques Noël, dated 1587 and printed by. "use strict";(function(){var insertion=document.getElementById("citation-access-date");var date=new Date().toLocaleDateString(undefined,{month:"long",day:"numeric",year:"numeric"});insertion.parentElement.replaceChild(document.createTextNode(date),insertion)})(); Subscribe to the Biography newsletter to receive stories about the people who shaped our world and the stories that shaped their lives. [14] In the words of the commission, he was to "discover certain islands and lands where it is said that a great quantity of gold and other precious things are to be found". Jacques Cartier was born on December 31, 1491 in Saint-Malo, a port town of Brittany, France. But his motherland was a significant trade of ports during the 16th century. Entre 1541 et 1542, les premiers colons français qui devait peupler cette "Nouvelle France" apportée à la Couronne Royale, s'installèrent le long des berges du Saint Laurent. Jacques Cartier (December 31, 1491–September 1, 1557) was a French navigator sent by French King Francis I to the New World to find gold and diamonds and a new route to Asia. The King had previously invited (although not formally commissioned) the Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano to explore the eastern coast of North America on behalf of France in 1524. [11] Le Veneur cited voyages to Newfoundland and Brazil as proof of Cartier's ability to "lead ships to the discovery of new lands in the New World".[12]. Born in Saint-Malo, France on December 31, 1491, Cartier reportedly explored the Americas, particularly Brazil, before making three major North American voyages. Cartier estimated the number of dead Iroquoians at 50. Jacques Cartier Island, located on the tip of the Great Northern Peninsula in Newfoundland and Labrador in the town of Quirpon, is said to have been named by Jacques Cartier himself on one of his voyages through the Strait of Belle Isle during the 1530s. Uu tiin dafe Canada, sona khoje ke khatir, gais.. Uu pahila European admii rahaa jon ki Prince Edward Island, Saint Lawrence River|St. Anchoring at Stadacona, Cartier again met the Iroquoians, but found their "show of joy" and their numbers worrisome, and decided not to build his settlement there. Cartier, however, had other plans; instead of heading to Quebec, he sneaked away during the night and returned to France. By signing up, you'll get thousands of step-by-step solutions to your homework questions. Answer to: What was Jacques Cartier's nationality? [citation needed], Cartier left his main ships in a harbour close to Stadacona, and used his smallest ship to continue on to Hochelaga (now Montreal), arriving on October 2, 1535. [49], Canadian rock band The Tragically Hip reference Jacques Cartier in their 1992 song "Looking for a Place to Happen". There is little to no evidence about how Jacques Cartier assimilated his skill of navigation. The song deals with the subject of European encroachment in the New World and the eventual annexation of indigenous lands in North America. Reaching the St. Lawrence, he sailed upriver for the first time, and reached the Iroquoian capital of Stadacona, where Chief Donnacona ruled. On April 20, 1534,[13] Cartier set sail under a commission from the king, hoping to discover a western passage to the wealthy markets of Asia. In a feudal society talents were often overlooked and superseded by political standing. Generation also known as The Greatest Generation. Even though scurvy was cured through the native remedy (Thuja occidentalis infusion), the impression left is of a general misery, and of Cartier's growing conviction that he had insufficient manpower either to protect his base or to go in search of the Saguenay Kingdom. He had by now abandoned the idea of finding a passage to the Orient and was sent to establish a permanent settlement along the St. Lawrence River on behalf of France. Le 24 juillet, il en prit possession pour le roi à Gaspé. Cartier left for France in early June 1542, encountering Roberval and his ships along the Newfoundland coast, at about the time Roberval marooned Marguerite de La Rocque. In May 1541, Cartier departed on his third voyage with five ships. Most probably this was the Sieur de Roberval, who replaced Cartier as the leader of the settlement. William Clark was half of the famous exploration team Lewis and Clark, who explored and mapped the unknown lands west of the Mississippi River. Jacques Cartier is part of G.I. After his final trip, he said he would never search again. The fr:Banque Jacques-Cartier existed, and printed banknotes, between 1861 and 1899 in Lower Canada, then Quebec. French navigator Jacques Cartier was sent by King Francis I to the New World in search of riches and a new route to Asia in 1534. Cartier, who was a respectable mariner, improved his social status in 1520 by marrying Mary Catherine des Granches, member of a leading family. On sait qu'il est recommandé au roi de France par Jean Le Veneur, brillant prélat qui vient d'obtenir du pape une interprétation laxiste de la bulle de 1493, partageant le monde entre l'Espagne et le Portugal. His explorations consolidated France's claim of the territory that would later be colonized as New France, and his third voyage produced the first documented European attempt at settling North America since that of Lucas Vázquez de Ayllón in 1526–27. So certain was Cartier that the river was the Northwest Passage and that the rapids were all that was preventing him from sailing to China, that the rapids and the town that eventually grew up near them came to be named after the French word for China, La Chine: the Lachine Rapids and the town of Lachine, Quebec.[18]. Hochelaga was far more impressive than the small and squalid village of Stadacona, and a crowd of over a thousand came to the river edge to greet the Frenchmen. Cartier set up camp again near Quebec, and they found an abundance of what they thought were gold and diamonds. And Cartier named Canadiens the inhabitants (Iroquoians) he had seen there. He died at age 65 on September 1, 1557, during an epidemic,[27] possibly of typhus,[28] though many sources list his cause of death as unknown. There, his "gold" and "diamonds" were found to be worthless, and the colonists abandoned plans to found a settlement, returning to France after experiencing their first bitter winter. Jacques-Cartier National Park (French: Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier) is a provincial park located 50 kilometres (31 mi) north of Quebec City. [10], In 1534, two years after the Duchy of Brittany was formally united with France in the Edict of Union, Cartier was introduced to King Francis I by Jean Le Veneur, bishop of Saint-Malo and abbot of Mont Saint-Michel, at the Manoir de Brion. While credited with the exploration of the St. Lawrence region, Cartier's reputation has been tarnished by his dealings with the Iroquois and abandonment of the incoming colonists as he fled the New World. Jacques Cartier Biography, Life, Interesting Facts. He died in Saint-Malo in 1557. Jacques Cartier (Saint-Malo, 31 de diciembre de 1491-Saint-Malo, 1 de septiembre de 1557) [1] fue un navegante y explorador francés que realizó tres viajes a América del Norte al servicio de la corona francesa, que le convirtieron en el primer explorador de esa nacionalidad en el Nuevo Mundo. Jacques Cartier regagna la France sans l’autorisation de Roberval. Cartier was also one of the first to formally acknowledge that the New World was a separate land mass from Europe/Asia. [22], On October 17, 1540, Francis ordered the navigator Jacques Cartier to return to Canada to lend weight to a colonization project of which he would be "captain general". Uske janam 31 December 1491 ke Saint-Malo, Brittany, France ke ek chhotaa town me bhais rahaa, jahan pe uu 1 September 1557 talak rahis. Lawrence River aur Hochelaga ke dekhis rahaa. He died on September 1, 1557, Saint-Malo, France. If you see something that doesn't look right, contact us! A fortified settlement was thus created and was named Charlesbourg-Royal. Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier – Wikipedia Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier Der Parc national de la Jacques-Cartier ist einer der größeren unter den aktuell 27 Nationalparks in der kanadischen Provinz Québec. Considering that Cartier made three voyages of exploration in dangerous and hitherto unknown waters without losing a ship, and that he entered and departed some 50 undiscovered harbours without serious mishap, he may be considered one of the most conscientious explorers of the period. On a visit by Domagaya to the French fort, Cartier inquired and learned from him that a concoction made from a tree known as annedda, probably Spruce beer,[20] or arbor vitae, would cure scurvy. His fiancee is Mary Catherine des Granches (m. 1520–1557). Henri Cartier-Bresson was a French photographer whose humane, spontaneous photographs helped establish photojournalism as an art form. No baptismal certificate has been found, but Cartier stated his age in at least three letters.

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