Henry expanded his empire at Louis's expense, taking Brittany and pushing east into central France and south into Toulouse; despite numerous peace conferences and treaties, no lasting agreement was reached. 279–281; Bates (1998), pp. [134] Henry also appears to have consulted with his court when making legislation; the extent to which he then took their views into account is unclear. 54–56; Jones, p. 24; Turner (2011), p. 226. [55], To draw Stephen's forces away from Wallingford, Henry besieged Stephen's castle at Malmesbury, and the King responded by marching west with an army to relieve it. Henry's younger brother Geoffrey later appears to have circulated a story that his father, on his deathbed, had insisted that Henry be given Anjou and Maine only until he had conquered England, when they would be passed to Geoffrey, although the veracity of this story is doubted by many modern historians. As the sons grew up, tensions over the future inheritance of the empire began to emerge, encouraged by Louis and his son King Philip II. Social Networks and Archival Context. Encyclopedia.com. Henry VI [234] Louis allied himself with the Welsh, Scots and Bretons, and attacked Normandy. Deuxième fils de François Ier et de Claude de France. [205] Since travel by sea during the period was dangerous, he would also take full confession before setting sail and use auguries to determine the best time to travel. [357] Many of the changes he introduced during his long rule had major long-term consequences. [92], Henry now appeared to his contemporaries to be stronger than ever, and he was courted as an ally by many European leaders and asked to arbitrate over international disputes in Spain and Germany. Henry roi d'Angleterre II, Henry, koning van Engeland, 1133-1189. [360], Henry and his reign have attracted historians for many years. Barratt, p. 243; Allen, p. 257; White (2000), pp. Recent research has shown that Stephen had begun the programme of castle destruction before his death and that Henry's contribution was less substantial than once thought, although Henry did take much of the credit for this work. [156] The court was relatively formal in its style and language, possibly because Henry was attempting to compensate for his own sudden rise to power and relatively humble origins as the son of a count. [266] Mainstream Europeans regarded the Irish as relatively barbarous and backward. He became Count of Nantes by treaty in 1185. 572–532, cited Hallam and Everard, p. 221; White; Gillingham. [121] Despite this temporary halt in hostilities, Henry's seizure of the Vexin proved to be a second long-running dispute between him and the kings of France. 81–82; Poole, p. 569. 124–125. [319] Richard refused to give up Aquitaine; he was deeply attached to the duchy, and had no desire to exchange this role for the meaningless one of being the junior King of England. See more ideas about catherine of valois, plantagenet, england. [74] Nonetheless, Henry inherited a difficult situation in England, as the kingdom had suffered extensively during the civil war. At various times, Henry also partially controlled Scotland, Wales and the Duchy of Brittany. [116][nb 13] Now it was Louis's turn to be furious, as the move clearly broke the spirit of the 1160 treaty. Also at this time, Richard was betrothed to Louis's young daughter Alys. Blog Press Information. [374] The Lion in Winter has proved to be an enduring representation of Henry, being turned into an Academy-Award-winning film and remade in 2003 for television. This required the acquiescence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, traditionally the churchman with the right to conduct the ceremony. [163] He had several long-term mistresses, including Annabel de Balliol and Rosamund Clifford. [15] Taking his immediate household and a few mercenaries, he left Normandy and landed in England, striking into Wiltshire. New Catholic Encyclopedia. He decided that he would divide up his empire after his death, with Young Henry receiving England and Normandy, Richard being given the Duchy of Aquitaine, and Geoffrey acquiring Brittany. [329], Henry's relationship with his two surviving heirs was fraught. Henry II of England ... Français : Monnaies de Henri II (Angleterre) (1154-1189) Italiano : Monete de Enrico II d'Inghilterra (1154-1189) < 1154: Coins of Stephen of England > 1189: Coins of Richard I of England. In the 1950s Jacques Boussard and John Jolliffe, among others, examined the nature of Henry's "empire"; French scholars in particular analysed the mechanics of how royal power functioned during this period. [295] In an effort to reinvigorate the plan, Philip, the Count of Flanders, announced his intention to invade England and sent an advance force into East Anglia. ." Warren (2000), p. 138; Turner (2011), p. 245. Documents about Henri II (roi d'Angleterre, 1133-1189) (26 resources in data.bnf.fr) Books (26) Instruction for a Ruler (2018) Henry the Young King, 1155-1183 (2016) [157] He opposed the holding of tournaments, probably because of the security risk that such gatherings of armed knights posed in peacetime. Philip held a peace conference in November 1188, making a public offer of a generous long-term peace settlement with Henry, conceding to his various territorial demands, if Henry would finally marry Richard and Alys and announce Richard as his recognised heir. [232] Henry then forced Conan to abdicate as duke and to give Brittany to his daughter Constance; Constance was handed over and betrothed to Henry's son Geoffrey. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography. [98], Meanwhile, Henry turned his attention to the Duchy of Brittany, which neighboured his lands and was traditionally largely independent from the rest of France, with its own language and culture. [348] The discussions achieved little, although Henry is alleged to have offered Philip that John, rather than Richard, could marry Alys, reflecting the rumours circulating over the summer that Henry was considering openly disinheriting Richard. Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. [125][nb 14] Henry travelled constantly across the empire, producing what the historian John Jolliffe describes as a "government of the roads and roadsides". [105] Conan's uncle, Hoël, continued to control the county of Nantes in the east until he was deposed in 1156 by Henry's brother, Geoffrey, possibly with Henry's support. [213] A new coin, called the Awbridge silver penny, was issued in 1153 in an attempt to stabilise the English currency after the war. [281], The final straw was Henry's decision to give his youngest son John three major castles belonging to Young Henry, who first protested and then fled to Paris, followed by his brothers Richard and Geoffrey; Eleanor attempted to join them but was captured by Henry's forces in November. 304–205; Hallam and Everard, pp. Ykenai Or Hikenai Concubine Of England, 1131 - 1224 Ykenai Or Hikenai Concubine Of England 1131 1224. [296] The prospective Flemish invasion forced Henry to return to England in early July. [159] His mother, Matilda, played an important role in his early life and exercised influence for many years later. Henry was born in 1132, in Le Mans , Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France. [235] In February 1173, Raymond finally gave in and publicly gave homage for Toulouse to Henry and his heirs. [2] The French county of Anjou was formed in the 10th century and the Angevin rulers attempted for several centuries to extend their influence and power across France through careful marriages and political alliances. [270] Henry's timing was influenced by several factors, including encouragement from Pope Alexander, who saw the opportunity to establish papal authority over the Irish church. [324] Open war broke out in 1183 and Henry and Richard led a joint campaign into Aquitaine: before they could conclude it, Young Henry caught a fever and died, bringing a sudden end to the rebellion. 596–597; Turner (2009), p. 37. [209] Kings could also raise funds by borrowing; Henry did this far more than earlier English rulers, initially through moneylenders in Rouen, turning later in his reign to Jewish and Flemish lenders. [321] With trouble clearly brewing, Henry attempted to defuse the situation by insisting that Richard and Geoffrey give homage to Young Henry for their lands. Furthermore, the whole Becket matter was an increasing international embarrassment to Henry. [176][nb 23], In the aftermath of the disorders of Stephen's reign in England there were many legal cases concerning land to be resolved: many religious houses had lost land during the conflict, while in other cases owners and heirs had been dispossessed of their property by local barons, which in some cases had since been sold or given to new owners. [59] Meanwhile, Henry was attempting to act the part of a legitimate king, witnessing marriages and settlements and holding court in a regal fashion. [23] Not as reserved as his mother, nor as charming as his father, Henry was famous for his energy and drive. 597–598; Turner (2011), p. 248. This procedure became so popular that almost all important cases came to his courts, thus increasing his power and income. Louis invariably attempted to take the moral high ground in respect to Henry, capitalising on his reputation as a crusader and circulating rumours about his rival's behaviour and character. ." [352] Philip and Richard were making good progress, not least because it was now obvious that Henry was dying and that Richard would be the next king, and the pair offered negotiations. Bradbury, p. 183; King (2010), p. 277; Crouch (2002), p. 276. [7] The war, termed the Anarchy by Victorian historians, dragged on and degenerated into stalemate. [164][nb 20], Henry had eight legitimate children by Eleanor, five sons—William, the Young Henry, Richard, Geoffrey and John, and three daughters, Matilda, Eleanor and Joan. [87] Restoring Anglo-Norman supremacy in Wales proved harder, and Henry had to fight two campaigns in north and south Wales in 1157 and 1158 before the Welsh princes Owain Gwynedd and Rhys ap Gruffydd submitted to his rule, agreeing to the pre-civil war borders. [353] This desertion proved the final shock and the King finally collapsed into a fever, regaining consciousness only for a few moments, during which he gave confession. Close × Shared Related Resources . Henry's desire to reform the relationship with the Church led to conflict with his former friend Thomas Becket, the Archbishop of Canterbury. . Henry II (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189), also known as Henry Curtmantle (French language: Court-manteau), Henry FitzEmpress or Henry Plantagenet, ruled as Count of Anjou, Count of Maine, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Count of Nantes, King of England (1154–89) and Lord of Ireland; at various times, he also controlled Wales, Scotland and Brittany. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. [184] Between 1159 and 1163, Henry spent time in Normandy conducting reforms of royal and church courts and some measures later introduced in England are recorded as existing in Normandy as early as 1159. [297] Henry travelled to Becket's tomb in Canterbury, where he announced that the rebellion was a divine punishment on him, and took appropriate penance; this made a major difference in restoring his royal authority at a critical moment in the conflict. This destruction led to Victorian historians terming the conflict the period of ". P. Petit. [11] For about a year, Henry lived alongside Roger of Worcester, one of Robert's sons, and was instructed by a magister, Master Matthew; Robert's household was known for its education and learning. 111–122, 130; Weiler, pp. Henri II Plantagenêt: comte d'Anjou, roi d'Angleterre. [Monnaie] Angleterre, Henry II, Esterlin, 1154-1189 [monnaie] Aquitaine, Duché d'Aquitaine, Henri II, denier, 1154-1189: Pedes finium de regnis Henrici II et Ricardi I: Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie : concernant les provinces françaises et les affaires de France. Barlow (1986), p. 272; Weiler, pp. D.N.B. [294] Henry refused the bait and instead focused on crushing opposition in south-west France. Encyclopedia.com. [330] John offended the local Irish rulers, failed to make allies amongst the Anglo-Norman settlers, began to lose ground militarily against the Irish, and finally returned to England. Recueil des actes de Henri II, roi d'Angleterre et duc de Normandie : concernant les provinces franc̨aises et les affaires de France by Henry (Book) 6 editions published between 1909 and 1916 in French and held by 32 WorldCat member libraries worldwide He is a central character in James Goldman's 1966 play The Lion in Winter, set in 1183 and presenting an imaginary encounter between Henry's immediate family and Philip Augustus over Christmas at Chinon. [333] Initially Henry and Philip Augustus had enjoyed a good relationship. [15] Neither his mother nor his uncle were prepared to support him, implying that they had not approved of the expedition in the first place. [234] Further south Henry continued to apply pressure on Raymond of Toulouse: the King campaigned there personally in 1161, sent the Archbishop of Bordeaux against Raymond in 1164 and encouraged Alfonso II of Aragon in his attacks. In trying to increase the jurisdiction of his courts, Henry clashed with his former friend and chancellor, Thomas becket. Henry's influence over the papal legates resulted from the schism that had occurred in the Church between Victor IV and Alexander III. The two men had already clashed over Henry's succession to Normandy and the remarriage of Eleanor, and the relationship was not repaired. 35–36, 38; Carpenter, p. 197. [60], Over the next summer, Stephen massed troops to renew the siege of Wallingford Castle in a final attempt to take the stronghold. By 1189, Young Henry and Geoffrey were dead, and Philip successfully played on Richard's fears that Henry II would make John king, leading to a final rebellion. 298–299. Warren (2000), p. 49; Gillingham (1984), p. 18. By the end of the reign the royal courts had developed so rapidly that a formal treatise on the common law could be written. On the issues of criminous clerks and appeals to Rome, precedents were confused, but neither man was willing to compromise. [337] Philip threatened to invade Normandy if this did not happen. Jean Marie (prêtre du Diocèse de Bayeux.) His system was based on the circuit judge, the legal writ, and the jury. 279–280; Bradbury, pp. 260–261; Warren (2000), p. 268. [167] His family was divided by rivalries and violent hostilities, more so than many other royal families of the day, in particular the relatively cohesive French Capetians. [253] Both sought the support of Alexander III and other international leaders, arguing their positions in various forums across Europe. [148] His court attracted huge attention from contemporary chroniclers, and typically comprised several major nobles and bishops, along with knights, domestic servants, prostitutes, clerks, horses and hunting dogs. Publication date 1920 Topics Henry II, King of England, 1133-1189 Publisher Paris, Impr. Duggan (1965), p. 67, cited Alexander, p. 3. Henri II 'Curtmantle' Plantagenêt was born on 5 MAR 1133 TO ABT-03-1133 in Le Mans, Sarthe, Pays de la Loire, France, son of Geoffroy V 'le Bel' d'Anjou and Mathilda (Adelaïde) of Scotland. William married Gundreda d'Angleterre (born de Beauclerc) at marriage place. Ibn-Munqidh, Usama. [217] Aided by the capable Richard FitzNeal, he reformed the currency in 1158, putting his name on English coins for the first time and heavily reducing the number of moneyers licensed to produce coins. [115] This represented an aggressive containment strategy towards Henry rather than the agreed rapprochement, and caused Theobald to abandon his alliance with Henry. [189] Local juries were used occasionally in previous reigns, but Henry made much wider use of them. [268] Diarmait put together a force of Anglo-Norman and Flemish mercenaries drawn from the Welsh Marches, including Richard de Clare, Earl of Pembroke. [49] Stephen responded by placing Wallingford Castle, a key fortress loyal to Henry along the Thames Valley, under siege, possibly in an attempt to force a successful end to the English conflict while Henry was still fighting for his territories in France. He began to take a more conciliatory tone with Becket but, when this failed, had Young Henry crowned anyway by the Archbishop of York. [149][nb 18] Within the court were his officials, ministeriales, his friends, amici, and the familiares regis, the King's informal inner circle of confidants and trusted servants. During the early years of his reign the younger Henry restored the royal administration in England, re-established hegemony over Wales and gained full control over his lands in Anjou, Maine and Touraine. 178–179; King (2007), p. 24; Warren (2000), p. 49. [168] Various suggestions have been put forward to explain Henry's family's bitter disputes, from their inherited family genetics to the failure of Henry and Eleanor's parenting. [34] Many of the barons were making individual peace agreements with each other to secure their war gains and it increasingly appeared as though the English church was considering promoting a peace treaty. [39][nb 6] The marriage instantly reignited Henry's tensions with Louis: it was considered an insult, it ran counter to feudal practice[clarification needed] and it threatened the inheritance of Louis and Eleanor's two daughters, Marie and Alix, who might otherwise have had claims to Aquitaine on Eleanor's death. [62] Upon news of this, Stephen returned with a large army, and the two sides confronted each other across the River Thames at Wallingford in July. [206] Henry's movements may also have been planned to take advantage of saints' days and other fortuitous occasions. Publication date 1916 Publisher Paris, Impr. [56] Henry successfully evaded Stephen's larger army along the River Avon, preventing Stephen from forcing a decisive battle. [158], The Angevin Empire and court was, as historian John Gillingham describes it, "a family firm". Musset, pp. [133] A great council was supposed to advise the King and give assent to royal decisions, although it is unclear how much freedom they actually enjoyed to oppose Henry's intentions. 1–2; Carpenter, p. 192. [325], With his eldest son dead, Henry rearranged the plans for the succession: Richard was to be made king of England, although without any actual power until the death of his father. Henry was stubborn and bore grudges, while Becket was vain, ambitious and overly political: neither man was willing to back down. 32 For instance, Warren, Henry II, p. 195. [117], Henry was not an especially pious king by medieval standards. Earlier historians believed that Henry was a particularly active literary patron; the historian John Gillingham has more recently challenged some of these interpretations of Henry and the arts in favour of Henry being a more modest patron. [130] Nonetheless, many of the functions of government centred on Henry himself and he was often surrounded by petitioners requesting decisions or favours. 1038), "Criticism of Henry II's Expedition to Ireland in William of Canterbury's Miracles of St Thomas Becket", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research, "Kings and Sons: Princely Rebellions and the Structures of Revolt in Western Europe, c.1170-c.1280", Margaret of France, Queen of England and Hungary, Joan, Countess of Hertford and Gloucester, Thomas of Brotherton, 1st Earl of Norfolk, Thomas of Woodstock, 1st Duke of Gloucester, Thomas of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Clarence, Humphrey of Lancaster, 1st Duke of Gloucester, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Henry_II_of_England&oldid=997040617, Short description is different from Wikidata, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from June 2019, Wikipedia articles with BIBSYS identifiers, Wikipedia articles with CANTIC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SELIBR identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SNAC-ID identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with Trove identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 29 December 2020, at 19:02.

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